Chinese Laborers During The Westward Expansion Essay

Immigration, Railroads, and the West

Publications digitized for Immigration to the US

Cover, California. State Board of Trade.
California: Early History, Commercial Position,
Climate, Scenery, Forests...
, [1897].

The history of immigration and emigration in the United States is closely linked to the history of railroads. Immigrants were not only integral to the construction of the transcontinental railroads that facilitated western expansion, but they also used the railroad to migrate west and to form new immigrant settlements in western states and territories.

Work on the first transcontinental railroad began after President Abraham Lincoln approved the Pacific Railway Act of 1862, a landmark law that authorized the federal government to financially back the construction of a transcontinental railroad. Due to the American Civil War, work was delayed for several years. By 1866, however, the great race was on between the Central Pacific Railroad, which was charged with laying track eastward from Sacramento, and the Union Pacific Railroad, which started laying track westward from Omaha, to see which railroad company could lay the most miles of railroad track before the two railroad lines joined up. Because the federal government subsidized at least $16,000 for each mile of railroad laid as well as generous land grants along the track, each company had a strong financial incentive to lay track as quickly as possible.

This massive work could never have been completed without Chinese and Irish laborers, who comprised the bulk of the workforce. Chinese laborers were brought in by the Central Pacific Railroad in large numbers. Indeed, by the height of the construction effort in 1868, over 12,000 Chinese immigrants were employed, comprising about 80 percent of the Central Pacific's workforce.

The work ethic of the Chinese impressed James Strobridge, the foreman of construction, as did their willingness to do the dangerous work of blasting areas for track in the treacherous Sierra Nevada, an effort that cost some Chinese laborers their lives. Chinese workers even helped lay a record ten miles of track in just twelve hours, shortly before the railroad was completed. The Chinese dedication to the Central Pacific was even more impressive in light of the racial discrimination they experienced. California law prevented them from obtaining full citizenship, but still mandated that they pay taxes to the state of California. In addition, the Chinese were paid only $27 a month (later rising to $30 a month), significantly less than the $35 a month that Irish laborers on the Central Pacific earned for doing the same work.

The Union Pacific was built primarily by Irish laborers from the Eastern Seaboard who were veterans of the Union and Confederate armies during the Civil War. Mormons also supplied labor, due to their desire to see the railroad pass near to Salt Lake City, and thereby to incorporate heavily Mormon Utah into the rest of the country. Although the Irish did not suffer from the same kind of racial discrimination as the Chinese did on the Central Pacific, they were still paid relatively little for hard work in dangerous territory. Irish laborers were killed by Native American war parties, who attacked laborers and construction parties for their efforts to build a railroad that Native Americans believed threatened the continued existence of their culture and violated treaties granted by the US government.

Between 1865 and 1869, the Central Pacific had laid 690 miles of track and the Union Pacific 1,087 miles of track. The meeting of the two railroads and the completion of the first transcontinental railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, on May 10, 1869, was a major national achievement that could not have occurred without immigrant laborers.

After the first transcontinental railroad was completed, immigrants who entered the US at immigration checkpoints on the Eastern Seaboard such as Ellis Island began using the train system to migrate west. In fact, the railroad companies themselves promoted such plans, because increased population in the west meant more business for railroads. One vivid example of this phenomenon is in Kansas, where the marketing campaign of railroads led to the influx of European, Russian, Mexican, and African immigrants only a decade after murderous conflicts in "bloody Kansas" had presaged the American Civil War. Railroads, then, were the means by which the population of western states increased dramatically due to the creation of new immigrant settlements and the westward migration of native-born Americans.


Immigration to the US Resources

Listed below are digital resources from the Immigration to the US collection about, or related to, immigration, railroads, and the West. These resources represent only a selection of what exists on these topics. More physical materials on these topics may be available at the owning repositories, some of which are open to the public.

Materials Published by the Railroads to Attract Immigrants to the West

Sunset. San Francisco, Calif.: Passenger Department., Southern Pacific Co., 1898-.

[Replying to Your Inquiry in Regard to Free Land in Montana.] St. Paul, Minnesota: Great Northern Railway Company, Office of General Immigration Agent, 1913.

Materials Published About Specific States to Attract Immigrants to the West

All About California: and the Inducements to Settle There, 6th Ed. San Francisco, California: California Immigrant Union, 1873.

600,000 Akkers Ijzerenweg Landen te Verkoopen in de Beroemde Yazoo Delta van Mississippi : en Toehoorende aan de Yazoo & Mississippi Valley R.R. Cie. Chicago: [s.n.], 189-.

Bureau of Immigration of the Territory of New Mexico. Luna County, New Mexico: One of the Leading Stock and Range Sections of the Southwest, a Heavy Mineral Producer and a Railroad Center. Sante Fe, New Mexico: J.S. Duncan, public printer, 1903.

California. State Board of Trade. California: Early History, Commercial Position, Climate, Scenery, Forests, General Resources, Irrigation, Mining, Agriculture, Horticulture, Olive Culture, Citrus Culture, the Sugar Beet, Raisin Growing, Transportation, Fruit Canning, Dairying, Poultry Raising, Floriculture, Live Stock, Sheep Husbandry, Forage Plants, Education, Religion, Political Status, Immigration, California and the Insane, Lick Observatory, San Francisco Statistical, Gold Production, Land Values. San Francisco, Calif.: California State Board of Trade, 1897.

Giles, Harry F., Compiler. Homeseeker's Guide to the State of Washington. Olympia: F.M. Lamborn, public printer, 1914.

Oregon. State Immigration Commission. The State of Oregon, Its Resources and Opportunities: Official Pamphlet Published for the Information of Homeseekers, Settlers and Investors. Salem, Or.: State Immigration Commission, 1912-15

Plain Facts About Dawson County, Montana: A Good Home at Small Cost: Some Free Homesteads Still to be Had. Minneapolis, Minn.: Reed and Smith, 1910.

Tenney, E.P. Colorado and Homes in the New West. Boston, Mass.: Lee and Shephard, 1880.

Materials on the History and Development of the Railroads

Gates, Paul Wallace. The Illinois Central Railroad and Its Colonization Work. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1934.

Moody, John. The Railroad Builders: A Chronicle of the Welding of the States. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1921.

Materials on the Populations of the West

David, Hughes. Welsh People of California, 1849-1906. San Francisco: [s.n.], c. 1923.

Japanese Immigration and the Japanese in California San Francisco: California Farmers Co-operative Association, c. 1920

Millis, Harry A. Japanese and Other Immigrant Races in the Pacific Coast and Rocky Mountain States, Presented by Mr. Dillingham. Washington : G.P.O., 1911.

Quigley, Hugh. The Irish Race in California and on the Pacific Coast: With an Introductory Historical Dissertation on the Principal Races of Mankind, and a Vocabulary of Ancient and Modern Irish Family Names. San Francisco: A. Roman & Co., 1878.

Emigrants' and Travelers' Guides

Baird, Robert. View of the Valley of the Mississippi, or, The Emigrant's and Traveller's Guide to the West: Containing a General Description of that Entire Country, and Also, Notices of the Soil, Productions, Rivers, and Other Channels of Intercourse and Trade, and Likewise of the Cities and Towns, Progress of Education, &c. of Each State and Territory. Philadelphia: H.S. Tanner, 1832.

Blowe, Daniel. A Geographical, Historical, Commercial, and Agricultural View of the United States of America: Forming a Complete Emigrant's Directory through Every Part of the Republic, Particularising the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Illinois. London: Edwards & Knibb, 1820.

Colton, J. H. Colton's Traveler and Tourist's Guide-book Through the Western States and Territories: Containing Brief Descriptions of Each, with the Routes and Distances on the Great Lines of Travel: Accompanied by a Map Exhibiting the Township Lines of the U.S. Surveys, the Boundaries of Counties, Position of Cities, Villages, Settlements, etc. New York: J.H. Colton and Co., 1855.

Lippincott's General Guide for Settlers in the United States: With Authentic Descriptions, from Official Sources, of the Climate, Soil, Products, Cost of Lands, Wages of Labour, Cost of Living, and Prices of Farm Animals as Products, in the Western and Southwestern States and Territories, and in Virginia, and of the Best Routes to and the Cost of Reaching the Districts Described 2nd Ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1876.

Parker, Nathan Howe. Parker's Illustrated Hand Book of the Great West: A Record of Statistics and Facts, with Practical Suggestions for Immigrants as to Profitable Investment of Labor & Capital in Industrial Pursuits in the Great West New York: American News Co., 1869.

Other Resources

Listed below are web sites about, or related to, immigration, railroads, and the West. These resources are listed to point users to further information outside the context of the Immigration to the US collection. The Open Collections Program and Harvard University bear no responsibility for the contents of these web sites. This list is not intended to be comprehensive.


Selected Bibliography of Secondary Sources

Aarim-Heriot, Najia. Chinese Americans, African Americans, and Racial Anxiety in the United States, 1848-1882.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

Ah-Tye, Howard. Resourceful Chinese.  Oakland: Chinese Presbyterian Church of Oakland, 1999.

Ambrose, Stephen E. Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Ambrose, Stephen E. “The Central Pacific Attacks the Sierra Nevada.” American History. 35.4, 2000.

Arkush, R. David, and Leo O. Lee, eds. Land Without Ghosts: Chinese Impressions of America from the Mid-Nineteenth Century to the Present.  Berkeley: UC Press, 1989.

Arreola, D. “The Chinese Role in Creating the Early Cultural Landscape of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.” California Geographer 15 (1975): 1-15.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Volume XXXVIII: Essays and Miscellany. San Francisco: The History Company, 1890.

Bain, David Hayward. Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad.  New York: Viking Penguin, 1999.

Barkan, Elliot Robert. From All Points: America’s Immigrant West, 1870s-1952.

Barth, Gunther. Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850-1870. Cambridge: Harvard U Press, 1964.

Blazing Saddles. Dir. Mel Brooks. Perf. Gene Wilder, Cleavon Little, Slim Pickins, Harvery Korman, Madeline Kahn. Warner Bros., 1974. Film.

Bowles, Samuel. Our New West: Records of travel between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. Harford Publishing Company: Hartford, CT, 1869.

Brace, Charles Loring. The New West, or, California in 1867-1868. New York: G.P. Putnam & Sons, 1869.

Bristol-Kagan, Leigh. “Chinese Migration to California, 1851-1882: Selected Industries of Work, the Chinese Institutions and the Legislative Exclusion of a Temporary Work Force.” Ph.D. dissertation in history and East Asian languages. Harvard University, 1982.

Brownstone, David M. The Chinese-American Heritage.  New York: Facts on File, 1988. On res

Carter, Gregg Lee. “Social Demography of the Chinese in Nevada: 1870-1880.”  Nevada Historical Society Quarterly.  18.2, 1975. 72-89.

Chacon, Ramon D. “The Beginning of Racial Segregation: The Chinese in West Fresno and Chinatown’s Role as Red Light District 1870s-1920s.” Southern California Quarterly. 70.4, 1988. 371-298.

Chan, Sucheng. This Bittersweet Soil: Chinese in California Agriculture, 1860-1910. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1986.

Chang, Iris. The Chinese in America: A Narrative History.  New York: Viking, 2003.

Chang, Jui-te. “The Dragon and the Horse: The Economics of Railroads in China, 1876-1937.”  Hanxue Yanjiu (Chinese Studies). 4.1, 1986. 333-338. (In Chinese)

Chen, Jack. The Chinese of America.  San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.

Hee, George. Oral History, Mendocino County.  Fort Bragg, Calif.: Mendocino County Historical Society, 1976. Vol. 1.

Kin, Huie. Reminiscences. Peking: San Yu Press, 1932.

Chen, Yong. Chinese San Francisco, 1850-1943: A Trans-Pacific Community. Stanford: Stanford U Press, 2000.

Chew, James R. “Boyhood Days in Winnemucca 1901-1910.” Nevada Historical Society Quarterly. 41.3, 1998. 206-209.

Chew, Lee. “The Life Story of a Chinaman.” Hamilton Holt, ed. The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans. New York: J. Pott, 1906.

Chew, William F. Nameless Builders of the Transcontinental Railroad.  Victoria: Trafford. 2004. On reserve

Chinn, Thomas W. A History of the Chinese in California: A Syllabus. San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1969.

Chiu, Herman B. “When 1,000 Words Are Worth a Picture: How Newspapers Portrayed the Chinese and Irish Who Built the First Transcontinental Railroad.”  Dissertations Abstract International. 66.2, 2005. 392.

Chiu, Ping. Chinese Labor in California, 1850-1880: An Economic Study. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1967.

Choy, Philip P., Lorraine Dong, and Marlon K. Hom.  The Coming Man: 19th Century Perceptions of the Chinese. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co., 1994.

Christopher, Paul. “Placer County in 1874: The Letters of Duncan Mackenzie.” Pacific Historian. 19.1, 1975. 50-57.

Chung, Sue Fawn and Priscilla Wegars, eds. Chinese American Death Rituals: Respecting The Ancestors. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 2005.

Clark, George Thomas. Leland Stanford, War Governor of California, Railroad Builder and Founder of Stanford University.  Stanford: Stanford U Press, 1931.

Clayborn, Hannah. Historic Photos of the Chinese in California. Nashville, TN: Turner Publishing Company, 2009.

Cloud, Patricia, and Galenson, David W. “Chinese Immigration and Contract Labor in the Late Nineteenth Century.” National Bureau of Economic Research. 27 Jul. 2004: 22-42.

Cole, Cheryl L. “Chinese Exclusion: The Capitalist Perspective of the ‘Sacramento Union,’ 1850-1882.” California History. 57.1, 1978: 8-31.

Cole, Cornelius. Memoirs of Cornelius Cole. New York, NY, 1906: 182-184.

Con, Harry, Ronald J. Con, Graham Johnson, Edgar Wickberg, and William E. Willmott. From China to Canada: A History of the Chinese Communities in Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1982.

Don Conley, “The Pioneer Chinese of Utah.” Chinese on the American Frontier. Eds. Arif Dirlik and Malcolm Yeung.  Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2001.

Coolidge, Mary Roberts. Chinese Immigration. New York City: Henry Holt and Company, 1909: 75-84.

Cornford, Daniel. “To Save the Republic: The California Workingmen’s Party in Humboldt County.” California History. 66.2, 1987:130-142.

Robert Cowan. Bibliography of the Chinese Question in the United States.  San Francisco: A.M. Robertson, 1909.

Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age.  Urbana, IL: U of Illinois Press, 2011.

Daniels, Roger.  Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850.  Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.

Deverell, William. Railroad Crossing: Californians and the Railroad, 1850-1910. Berkeley: UC Press, 1993.

Dirlik, Arif, ed. Chinese on the American Frontier.Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 2001.

Dusanka, Miscevic, and Peter Kwong.  Chinese American: The Immigrant Experience.  Southport: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc., 2000.

Dusanka, Miscevic, and Peter Kwong. Chinese America: The Untold Story of America’s Oldest New Community. New York City: The New Press, 2005.

Eterovich, Adam S. Chinese Immigration: The Social, Moral, and Political Effect of Chinese Immigration. Sacremento, CA: State Printing Office, 1876.

Eterovich, Adam S. “Memorial: Six Chinese Companies, An Address to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States.” San Francisco: Read and Judge US, 1877.

Felton, David L.  The Central Pacific Railroad Passenger Station, Sacramento. Sacramento: California Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Cultural Heritage Section, 1978.

Fleming, Thomas. “The Race to Promontory.” American History Illustrated. 6.3, 1971: 10-25.

Flores, Lisa A. “Constructing Rhetorical Borders: Peons, Aliens, and Competing Narratives of Immigration.” Critical Studies in Media Communication. 20.4. December, 2003: 362-387.

Francaviglia, Richard V. Over the Range: A History of the Promontory Summit Route of the Pacific Railroad. Logan, Utah: Utah State U Press, 2008.

Fulton, Robert Lardin.Epic of the Overland: An Account of the Building of the Central and Union Pacific Railroad. Los Angeles: N.A. Kovach, 1954.

Galloway, John Debo. The First Transcontinental Railroad: Central Pacific, Union Pacific.  New York: Simmons-Boardman, 1950.

Gardner, Dudley. “Chinese Immigrants in the Wild Rose County: Alberta, 1881-1910.” Journal of the West. 45.1, 2006.

Gibson, Rev. Otis. The Chinese in America.  Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden, 1877.

Gouge, Catherine. “The Glorious ‘National Problem’: Frontierism and Citizenship in Frank Chin’s Donald Duk.” Journal of American Culture. 31.3, 2008: 271-282.

Greyhavens, Tim. “Map of the Anti-Chinese Expulsion and Riot: Seattle, Washington, February 7-8, 1886.” np, nd.

Griego, Andrew. “Rebuilding the California Southern Railroad: The Personal Account of a Chinese Labor Contractor, 1884.” Journal of San Diego History. 25.4, 1979.

Griswold, Wesley S. A Work of Giants: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962.

Gulick, Bill.  Roadside History of Oregon. Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing, 1991.

Hansen, Gladys C., ed. The Chinese in California: A Brief Bibliographic History. Portland: Richard Abel and Company, 1970.

Hee, George. Oral History, Mendocino County.  Fort Bragg, Calif.: Mendocino County Historical Society, 1976. Vol. 1.

Hersh, Lawrence K. Central Pacific Railroad across Nevada, 1868 & 1997: Photographic Comparatives. North Hollywood, CA: Lawrence K. Hersh, 2000.

Hess, Chester Netwen. “What California Means For Its Oldest Living Chinese.” Westways. 26.3, 1934.

Hing, Bill Ong. Making and Remaking Asian America Through Immigration Policy, 1850-1990. Stanford: Stanford U Press, 1993.

Hoobler, Dorothy and Thomas. The Chinese American Family Album. Oxford, U.K: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Howard, Robert West. The Great Iron Trail: The Story of the First Continental Railroad. New York: Putnam, 1962.

Hoexter, Corinne K. From Canton to California: The Epic of Chinese Immigration. New York, NY: Four Winds Press, 1976.

Hsu, Madeline.  Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and Migration between the United States and South China, 1882-1943. Stanford: Stanford U Press, 2000.

Hu, Sen and Jielin Dong, ed. The Rocky Road to Liberty: A Documented History of Chinese Immigration and Exclusion.  Saratoga: Javvin Press, 2010.

Huang, Annian, ed.  Zhang Juguo, trans. The Silent Spikes: Chinese Laborers and the Construction of North American Railroads.  Beijing: China Intercontinental Press, 2006.

Hyde, Stuart W.  “The Chinese Stereotype in American Melodrama.” California Historical Society Quarterly, XXXIV.  1955: 357-365.

Jackson, Donald Dale. “‘Behave like your actions reflect on all Chinese.’” Smithsonian. 21.11, 1991: 114-124.

Jung, Moon-Ho.  Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

Kent, Percy Horace. Railway Enterprise in China: An Account of its Origin and Development, 1907.

Kibbey, Mead B.The Railroad Photographs of Alfred A. Hart, Artist. Sacramento, CA: California State Library Foundation, 1996.

Kibria, Nazli.  Becoming Asian American: Second-Generation Chinese and Korean American Identities.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U Press, 2002.

Kim, Hyung-chan, ed.  Asian American Studies: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Guide.  New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Kin, Huie. Reminiscences. Peking: San Yu Press, 1932.

Kingston, Maxine Hong. China Men. New York, NY: 1977: 122-149.

Kirk, Andrew Taylor.  “Radical Labor, Racism, and the Preservation of Hegemony in Ogden, Territorial Utah, 1885-1886.” American Journalism. 24.4, 2007: 149-173.

Kraus, George.  “Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Central Pacific.”  Utah Historical Quarterly 37.1, 1969: 40-57.

Kraus, George. High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific Across the High Sierra.  Palo Alto: American West Publishing Company, 1969.

Kwong, Peter. Forbidden Workers: Illegal Chinese Immigrants and American Labor. New York, NY: The New Press, 1997: 142-145.

Lai, David Chuenyan. Chinatowns: Towns Within Cities in Canada. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1988.

Lai, Him Mark. Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. Walnut Creek: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2004.

Lai, Him Mark. “Historical Development of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association/Huiguan System.” Chinese America: History and Perspectives, 1987.

Lai, Him Mark, Joe Huang, and Don Wong. The Chinese of America, 1785-1980.  San Francisco: Chinese Culture Foundation, 1980.

Lake, Holly. “Construction of the CPRR: Chinese Immigrant Contribution.” Northeastern Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, 1994.


Lau, Estelle T. Paper Families: Identity, Immigration Administration and Chinese Exclusion. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.

Laurie, Clayton D. “Civil Disorder and the Military in Rock Springs, Wyoming: The Army’s Role in the 1885 Chinese Massacre.” Montana: the Magazine of Western History. 40.3, 1990.  44-59.

Lee, Rose Hum.  The Chinese in the United States of America. Hong Kong: Hong Kong U Press, 1960.

Lewis, Oscar. The Big Four: The Story of Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins, and Crocker, and the building of the Central Pacific. New York, NY: A.A. Knopf, 1938.

Levy, Daniel W. “Four California Railroad Lawyers in the Classical Era.”  Research Paper, Stanford University, Stanford Special Collections, 1994.”

Levy, Daniel W. “Classical Lawyers and the Southern Pacific Railroad.” Western Legal History: The Journal of the Ninth Judicial Circuit Historical Society. 9.2, 1996: 176-226.

Liestman, Daniel. “Utah’s Chinatown: The Development and Decline of Extinct Ethnic Enclaves.” Utah Historical Quarterly. 64.1, 1996: 70-95.

Lo, Karl and Him Mark Lai. Chinese Newspapers Published in North America, 1854-1975. Washington, D.C.: Center for Chinese Research Materials, Association of Research Libraries, 1977.

Lydon, Sandy. Chinese Gold: The Chinese in Monterrey Bay Region. Capitola, CA: Capitola Book Co., 1985.

Ma, L. Eve Armentrout. “Chinese in Marin County, 1850-1950: A Century of Growht and Decline.” Chinese America: History & Perspectives. Chinese Historical Society, 1991: 25-48.

Magnaghi, Russel M. “Virginia City’s Chinese Community, 1860-1880.” Nevada Historical Society Quarterly. 24.2, 1981. 130-157.

Mankell, Henning. The Man From Beijing. London : Harvill Secker, 2010.

Mayer, Lynne Rhodes and Kenneth E. Vose.  Makin’ Tracks: The Story of the Transcontinental Railroad in the Pictures and Words of the Men Who Were There. New York: Praeger, 1975.

McCague, James. Moguls and Iron Men: The Story of the First Transcontinental Railroad.  New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

McClain, Charles. In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle Against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America. Berkeley: UC Press, 1994.

McClain, Charles. “Chinese Immigration: A Comment on Cloud and Galenson.” Explorations in Economic History. 27, 1990: 363-78.

McCloskey, James J.  Across the Continent, or, Scenes from New York Life and the Pacific Railroad [in, Davy Crockett & other plays by Leonard Grover, Frank Murdock, Lester Wallack, G. H. Jessop, J. J. McCloskey. Edited by Isaac Goldberg and Hubert Heffner]. Princeton: Princeton U Press, 1940.

McCunn, Ruthanne Lum.  An Illustrated History of the Chinese in America.  San Francisco: Design Enterprises of San Francisco, 1979.

McCunn, Ruthanne Lum. Chinese American Portraits: Personal Histories 1828-1988. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1988.

McCunn, Ruthanne Lum. Pie-biter. San Francisco: Design Enterprises of San Francisco, 1983.

McLeod, Alexander. Pigtails and Gold Dust: A Panorama of Chinese Life in Early California. Caldwell, ID: The Caxton Printers, Ltd, 1947: 69, 71-85.

Meschery, Joanne. Truckee: An Illustrated History of the Town and its Surroundings. Truckee, CA: Rocking Stone Press, 1978.

Miller, Martha B. “The Chinese and the Central Pacific Railroad: An Example of Labor and Immigration in the Nineteenth Century.”  M.A. Thesis. University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1989.

Miller, Stuart C. The Unwelcome Immigrant: American Images of Chinese, 1785-1882.  Berkeley: UC Press, 1969.

Milner II, Clyde A., Carol A. O’Connor, and Martha A. Sandweiss. The Oxford History of the American West.  New York: Oxford U Press, 1994.

Montgomery, David. The Fall of the House of Labor. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987: 67

Moran, Jeffrey. “Chinese Labor for the New South.” Southern Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the South. 3.4, 1992.

Muench, Christopher.  “One Hundred Years of Medicine: The Ah-Fong Physicians of Idaho.”  Chinese Medicine on the Golden Mountain: An Interpretive Guide. Henry G. Schwarz, ed.  Seattle: Chinese Historical Society of the Pacific Northwest, 1984.

Nee, Victor G. and Brett de Barry Nee. Longtime Californ’: A Documentary Study of an American Chinatown. New York: Pantheon, 1972.

Ng, Dennis. Origins and Destinations: 41 Essays on Chinese America. Chinese Historical Society of Southern California and UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1994.

Okihiro, Gary Y. The Columbia Guide to Asian American History.  New York: Columbia U Press, 2001.

Ong, Paul M. “The Central Pacific Railroad and Exploitation of Chinese Labor.” Journal of Ethnic Studies. 13.2, 1985.

Parmet, Robert D. Labor and Immigration in Industrial America. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers, 1981.

Peabody, Etta B.  “Effort of the South to Import Chinese Coolies, 1865-1870.”  M.A. thesis.  Baylor University, 1967.

Pegler-Gordon, Anna. “Chinese Exclusion, Photography, and the Development of U.S. Immigration Policy.”  American Quarterly, 58.1. 2006: 51-77.

Perl, Lila. To The Gold Mountain: The Story of the Chinese Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad.  Tarrytown, New York: Benchmark Books, 2002.

Phillips, Catherine Coffin. Coulterville Chronicle: The Annals of a Mother Lode Mining Town. San Francisco: The Grabhorn Press, 1942.

Pfaelzer, Jean.  Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans.  New York: Random House, 2007.

Powell, Grady. “The Value of Chinese Immigrants During the Building of the First American Transcontinental Railroad, 1852-1869.” Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association.  2002: 55-66.

Prather, William N. “Sui Sin Far’s Railroad Baron: A Chinese of the Future.” American Literary Realism. 29.1, 1996.

Pricer, Barbara. The Chinese In Northern California. [Calif?: s. n.], 1996.

Richardson, Albert D.  Beyond the Mississippi. Hartford, CT: American Publishing Company, 1869.

“Racism in Frontier Journalism: A Case Study.” Journal of the West. 19.2, Apr80: 46-50.

Rhoades, Edward J.M. “The Chinese in Texas.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81.1, 1977.

Rosenbaum, Arthur Lewis. “China’s First Railway.”  Ph.D dissertation. Yale University, 1972.

Rosenblum, Gerald. Immigrant Workers: Their Impact on American Labor Radicalism. New York, NY: Basic Books Inc. Publishers, 1973.

Sabin, E.L.  Building the Pacific Railway.  Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1919.

Sacramento Chinese Culture Foundation and Asian-American Studies. 150 Years of the Chinese Presence in California: Honor the Past, Engage the Present, Build the Future. Sacramento: Sacramento Chinese Cultural Foundation, 2001.

Sandmeyer, Elmer Clarence. The Anti-Chinese Movement in California. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1973.

Saxton, Alexander. “The Army of Canton in the High Sierra.” Pacific Historical Review. Vol.35, 1966: 141-152.

Saxton, Alexander. The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California.  Berkeley and Los Angeles: UC Press, 1975.

Scwantes, Carlos A. “Protest in the Promised Land: Unemployment, Disinheritance, and the Origin of Labor Militancy in the Pacific Northwest, 1885-1886.” The Western Historical Quarterly. 13.4, Oct. 1882: 373-390

See, Lisa. On Gold Mountain. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Silver, Joseph S. “The Chinese in California.” Lippincott’s Magazine of Literature, Science, and Education Vol. 2.  1868: 36.

Sinnott, Susan. Chinese Railroad Workers. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994.

Spier, Robert F.G. “Food Habits of Nineteenth-Century California Chinese.” California Historical Society Quarterly.  37.1-2, 1958.

Stewart, John J. The Iron Trail to the Golden Spike. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1969.

Storti, Craig.  Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Chinese Massacre. Ames: Iowa State U Press, 1991.

Sung, Betty Lee. Mountain of Gold: The Story of the Chinese in America.  New York: Macmillan, 1967: 30-35, 39.

Tong, Benson. Unsubmissive Women: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

Tsai, Shih-shan Henry. China and the Overseas Chinese in the United States, 1868-1911. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 1983.

Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry. The Chinese Experience in America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986: 15-19.

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