Free Essays On The Watergate Scandal

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  • Iran Contra Affair Elect The President

    1,379 words

    Thesis statement: Watergate could possibly be the worst scandal in A. Iran Contra affair. B. Whitewater affair. B. Special prosecutors. V. National Archives and Records Administration. A. Material available for research. B. Special Files Unit. Outline B. Constitutional. VII. Conclusion. Political scandals are not strangers to the United States. They date back as far as 1830, with the presidential sex scandal and Thomas Jefferson, and in 1875 with the Whiskey Ring and President Ulysses S. Grant (...
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  • U S Attorney Watergate Scandal

    953 words

    Watergate, designation of a major U. S. political scandal that began with the burglary and wiretapping of the Democratic party's campaign headquarters, later engulfed President Richard M. Nixon and many of his supporters in a variety of illegal acts, and culminated in the first The burglary was committed on June 17, 1972, by five men who were caught in the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate apartment and office complex in Washington, D. C. Their arrest eventually uncov...
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  • Watergate Scandal Richard Nixon

    696 words

    In the American Democracy it is vital for our right to freedom of press to be put into full throttle. Without the press, the society would be clueless and blind of Washington's dealings and business. The press informs the public, for better or worse, about what really goes on in Washington. But during the Watergate Scandal, the press coverage of the scandal demonstrated some of the best and the worst aspects of the way the American press covers the presidency. Richard Nixon despised the press. F...
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  • Thousand Five Hundred Washington D C

    1,903 words

    Table of Contents Pg. 1 Thesis and Report Pg. 2 - 10 Appendix A (Definitions) Pg. 11 List of Works Cited Pg. 12 Five men wearing fingerprint concealing gloves, with an assortment of cameras, tools and intricate electronic bugging gear along with six thousand five hundred dollars in crisp new bills (most from the Democratic National Committee) were arrested on the early morning of June 17, 1972. During a burglary attempt in the Democratic National Headquarters office building, which is located in...
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  • Watergate Scandal Richard Nixon

    380 words

    They paint over me so many times as if they could cover up my memories. My memories cannot be covered up or erased, just as your memories they go on forever. I will never forget the Watergate scandal and Richard Nixon or womens rights from the mid- 1800 s to the 1900 s. During the Watergate scandal, President Nixon corrupted justice, created a constitutional crisis, and eventually was forced to resign. President Richard Nixon corrupted justice. He led CREEP, which is the Republican committee for...
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  • The Watergate Scandal And Its Judgment

    842 words

    Never has a situation such as Watergate arisen in the United States before. It was an attempt of monarchy, but because of the American government's structured system, had failed miserably. Former president Richard Nixon had tried to secure himself a second term in office, and had gone to extreme, illegal measures in doing so. But no matter how ingenious the Watergate scandal had seemed, it proved that the constitution had the ultimate power above all. Watergate will be known in history not only ...
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  • Washington D C Years In Prison

    1,138 words

    The Watergate Scandal involved a number of illegal activities that were designed to help President Richard Nixon win re-election. The scandal involved burglary, wiretapping, campaign financing violations, and the use of government agencies to harm political opponents. A major part of the scandal was also the cover-up of all these illegal actions. Watergate, however, differed from most previous political scandals because personal greed apparently did not play an important role. Instead Watergate ...
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  • The Political Career Of Richard Nixon

    1,226 words

    ... tes' relationship with communist countries around the globe as he became the first US president to visit the city of Moscow on May 20, 1972. He met with the Soviet leader Brezhnev and signed the SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) treaty (Aitken, 1993, 438). As the presidential election of 1972 came close, Nixon was almost guaranteed of re-election, as his visits to Beijing and Moscow won him great popularity back home. The American economy had also been improving steadily under the Nixon...
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  • President Of The United States Watergate Scandal

    1,562 words

    ... g progress at home. ' 4 Part of McGovern's economic plan included defense spending cut backs. 'What I offer is not simply a set of promises, but a specific plan to pay for those promises. First, I would reduce by approximately 10 billion dollars in each of the next three years the rapidly escalating, lavish Nixon military budget. Current spending wastes billions of dollars on planes that do not fly, and missiles that will not work. I will never permit America to become a second-rate power in...
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  • Watergate Scandal Break Ins

    707 words

    Nixon was elected as President in 1968. Reconciliation was the first goal set by President Richard M. Nixon. The Nation was divided, with disorder in the cities and with war overseas. During his Presidency, Nixon achieved success in ending the war in Vietnam. Besides, Nixon was successful in international politics. He improved relations with the Soviet Union. However, the Watergate scandal caused changes in the country that led to creation of new laws, but it became the reason for his resignatio...
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  • Campaign Finance Reform Taking Into Account

    2,747 words

    U. S, Congress has Not Solved the Problem of Campaign Finance Reform Corruption has always influenced politics greatly. It is as old as the country, thats why it has past as well as future. As long as money is used in political elections, corruption is sure to be. But in politics the only thing that of great importance is money. In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt spoke about prohibition of contributions to federal candidates which were made by corporations. A year later, in 1907, Congress pas...
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  • Point Of View Watergate Scandal

    730 words

    No title The main duty of the president of the country is to follow the legal principles while leading the nation. The actions of the president are under the permanent control of mass media that form the image of the president, transfer his messages and actions to people. When people elect president they express their trust and credibility to a political leader. President Richard Milhous Nixon remained known in the modern history as the key player of the Watergate scandal which burst out in 1972...
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  • Thousand Five Hundred Washington D C

    2,067 words

    Table of Contents Table of Contents Pg. 1 Thesis and Report Pg. 2 - 10 Appendix A (Definitions) Pg. 11 List of Sources Pg. 12 The Bugs at Watergate? Five men wearing fingerprint concealing gloves, with an assortment of cameras, tools and intricate electronic bugging gear along with six thousand five hundred dollars in crisp new bills (most from the Democratic National Committee) were arrested on the early morning of June 17, 1972. During a burglary attempt in the Democratic National Headquarters...
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  • Watergate Scandal President Kennedy

    907 words

    Inside The Oval Office is a book written by William Doyle that explores the differences in the occupational tendencies of the Presidents of the United States since Franklin D. Roosevelt. The actual transcripts from calls and discussions from within the oval office walls in the White House give you a behind the scenes look at the Presidency in a manner that has never before been expressed, to my knowledge. Reading books of this nature are not only interesting, but they bring to light new perspect...
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  • Freedom Of Speech Watergate Scandal

    1,437 words

    In Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward's All The Presidents Men, the truth is uncovered at any cost. The theme of the story is the length that the investigative reporters will go to discover truth and help to shed light on it. The first amendment protects the freedom of speech and the press. It is the job of investigators to protect this right and defend it to the best of their abilities. These two men risked their lives and careers for something they strongly believed in. They went above and beyond...
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  • Ulysses S Grant Forced To Resign

    1,137 words

    Religion and Politics in a Revolutionary Era The United States is a diverse place with millions of people that have many distinct ideologies and ethics. Recent events have brought to the forefront of national attention what people view as morally acceptable behavior for public officials. These events have also raised the question: What is the relationship between the personal character of our political leaders and their ability to govern wisely? It is my opinion that the majority of Americans be...
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  • U S Attorney United States Of America

    1,053 words

    Watergate Scandal THE WATERGATE SCANDAL Watergate is a hotel in Washington D. C. where the Democratic National Committee held their campaign headquarters. The current president at the time was Richard M. Nixon, who was involved in the scandal himself and which lead to the cause of his resignation. The Watergate scandal should not have happened, but it did and it caused the American people to judge less of their government system. The scandal began on June 17, 1972, with the arrest of five men wh...
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The Watergate Scandal involved a number of illegal activities that were designed to help President Richard Nixon win re-election. The scandal involved burglary, wiretapping, campaign financing violations, and the use of government agencies to harm political opponents. A major part of the scandal was also the cover-up of all these illegal actions. "Watergate, however, differed from most previous political scandals because personal greed apparently did not play an important role. Instead Watergate attacked one of the chief features of Democracy – free and open elections" (Worldbook 1).

The Watergate Scandal got its name from the Watergate Complex in Washington D.C. This large office building was the home of the Democratic National Headquarters, and the site of the break-in that began the largest scandal in American Politics. However, even before the break-in, President Nixon had begun illegal operations.

President Nixon had created a special investigation unit to prevent the leaking of confidential documents to the public. He did this after a number of Defense Department papers were released to the public concerning President Nixon"s paranoia over the public"s criticism of his Vietnam War policies (Owens 1).

The "Plumbers", as they were nicknamed, were headed by two of Nixon"s top aides, G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt. In order to prevent all information leaks, the "Plumbers" investigated the private lives of Nixon"s political enemies and critics. The White House rationalized the actions of the plumbers by saying that they were protecting National Security.

The actual Watergate Scandal began on June 17, 1972, with the arrest of five men for breaking into the Democratic Party"s National Headquarters located in the Watergate Complex in Washington D.C. The five men were part of the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP). They were attempting to fix a broken phone tap that they had installed about a month before. The five men were charged with burglary and wiretapping. Throughout the next few months this minor break-in turned into a full blown political scandal.

When first questioned about the situation in early 1973, Nixon denied all allegations that either he or any White House official was linked to the break-in. Later that year evidence was uncovered that linked several White House officials to the break-in, and or the cover-up and concealment of the evidence. This information indicated that White House officials had attempted to involve the CIA and FBI in the cover-up (Worldbook 2).

In April of 1973, special prosecutor Archibald Cox was appointed to handle the case. Presidential Council John W. Dean III became the chief witness against President Nixon in the court hearings. In the trial Dean admitted that he was a major part of the scandal and that Nixon did in fact know of the illegal activities being committed by his administration. Dean also testified that Nixon"s Administration had planned to use the IRS and other government agencies to punish people who the White House had placed on so called "enemies-lists" (Worldbook 2). Dean served four months in prison for his part in the Watergate Scandal, but through his testimony a new door was opened into the scandal.

Through further investigation it was discovered by Alexander P. Butterfield, that President Nixon had made tape recordings of conversations with White House officials. When asked to release the tapes Nixon refused, saying that he had a constitutional right to keep the tapes confidential. He was later ordered by the court to hand over the tapes. Nixon offered to provide summaries of all the tapes, but his idea was rejected and he was again ordered to hand over the original tapes. Infuriated by the court"s decision, he ordered his attorney general and his deputy attorney general to fire Cox. For their refusal to dismiss Cox, both Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus were fired as well. This series of dismissals by Nixon became known as the "Saturday Night Massacre" (Associated Press 2). When Cox was fired, Leon Jaworski was appointed to take his place.

The firing of Cox, however, did not work to Nixon"s advantage. In April of 1974, Jaworski ordered Nixon to release the tape recordings and documents of 64 White House conversations. By the end of April, Nixon had released 1,254 pages of transcripts from White House conversations (Worldbook 3). However, Jaworski was not satisfied. He wanted the original tapes. With President Nixon refusing to furnish the court with the original tapes, Jaworski sued him and won. In July, The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to hand over the original tapes and "ruled that the President cannot withhold any evidence in a criminal case" (Worldbook 4).

With the tapes at hand, Jaworski began the Watergate trial. In March of 1974, seven of Nixon"s former members of his administration and re-election committee were charged with conspiracy in the cover-up of the Watergate break-in. Among the seven were, John D. Echrlichman, H.R. Haldeman, and John N. Mitchell. They were all found guilty of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury. They were sentenced to 2 ½ to 8 years in prison. Their prison terms were later reduced to just 1 to 4 years. G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt were also indicted for their involvement as "plumbers" and for their involvement in the break-in and cover-up of the scandal. They too were sentenced to 1 to 4 years in prison.

In July 1974, the House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach President Nixon. They adopted three articles of impeachment: obstruction of justice, abusing presidential powers, and illegally withholding evidence from the judiciary committee.

On August 5, Nixon released the final three transcripts of the White House conversations. These final three dated back to six days after the break-in. They revealed that Nixon had ordered the FBI to abandon its investigation of the break-in. Nixon ordered them to close the investigation for he feared that the FBI would discover the involvement of his campaign. After the release of these final three tapes, Nixon lost nearly all his support in Congress. With no support, and having already been impeached, President Nixon"s top aides advised him to resign. On August 9, 1974 President Richard M. Nixon followed their advice, and resigned from the presidency to avoid being removed from office. Vice President Gerald R. Ford replaced him that very same day. On September 8, 1974 President Ford pardoned Nixon of all federal crimes that he had committed while serving as the President of the United States.

The resignation of the President, charges to nearly forty people, and a nation in disgust were not the only results of the Watergate Scandal. In 1974 Congress approved reforms in the financing of political campaigns. The reforms limited the amount of money that could be given by contributors and required detailed reporting of all contributions and spending. These new laws were soon adopted by state legislation as well.

 

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