Bradshaw Model Annotated Bibliography

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Term
Definition
INCREASES

Discharge is always increasing since tributaries feed more water into the stream. Throughflow, Groundwater Flow and Surface Runoff also increase contributing to discharge.
Term
Definition
INCREASES

Tributaries and flows directly increase 'volume' of water and river width increases due to lateral erosion.
Term
Definition
INCREASES

Tributaries and flows directly increase 'volume' of water and river depth increases due to vertical erosion.
Term
Definition
Velocity increases since water accelerates downstream due to the forces of gravity. The river is also more efficient since proportionally less water is in contact with the bed and banks thus reducing energy lost to friction.
Term
Definition
INCREASES

As river velocity rises, the river has more energy and is thus capable of carrying more load.
Term
Definition
DECREASES

As a river travels downstream, the eroded material becomes more rounded and smaller due to attrition.
Term
Definition
DECREASES

As a river travels downstream attrition smooths the bed since the bedload is much smoother.
Term
Definition
DECREASES

A river conducts vigorous vertical erosion in the upper course and lateral erosion in the lower course. Water can also only travel downhill due to forces of gravity.
Term
NOT INCLUDED
Wetted Perimeter
Definition
INCREASES

Wetted Perimeter is the part of the bed and banks which is in direct contact with water. As CSA increases, wetted perimeter must rise
Term
NOT INCLUDED
Hydraulic Radius
Definition
INCREASES

Proportionally, the increase in CSA > the increase in Wetted Perimeter. It is a measure of efficiency.

References recorded here relate to books and articles consulted during the development of this book. Page numbers of quotations are included in the main text.

Agger, B. (1991) Critical theory, post-structuralism, post-modernism: their sociological relevance. Annual Review of Sociology17http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.000541

Apps, J. & Yeomans, M. (1995) Ethical issues In nursing research. In Henry, K. & Pashley, G. (Eds) Community ethics and health care research. Dinton, Nr. Salisbury: Mark Allen

Bernard, J. (1973) My four revolutions: an autobiographical history of the American Sociological Association. American Journal of Sociology78: 782http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/225402

Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (Eds) (2000) Research methods in psychology (

2nd edition

). London: Sage

Brown, S.R. (1996) Q methodology and qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research6 (4) http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104973239600600408

Burns, N. & Grove, S.K. (1997) The practice of nursing research: conduct, critique and utilization. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders

Centre for Advanced Research in Phenomenologyhttp://www.phenomenologycenter.org

Crane, J. (1995) The future of research utilization. In Titler, M.G & Goode, C.J. (Eds) The nursing clinics of North America: research utilization. 30 (3) Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders

Cresswell, J.W. (1998) Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds) (1994) Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Dickson, R. (1996) Dissemination and implementation: the wider picture. Nurse Researcher4 (1)

Dictionary of Social Science Methods (1983) Edited by Miller, P. McC. and Wilson, M.J.Chichester: John Wiley

Evans, D. (2003) Hierarchy of evidence: a framework for ranking evidence evaluating healthcare interventions. Journal of Clinical Nursing12 (1) http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00662.x

Fife-Schaw, C. (2000) Introduction. In Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (Eds) Research methods in psychology (

2nd edition

). London: Sage
Fox, D. (1982) Fundamentals of research in nursing (

4th edition

). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts

Goodall, C.J. (1994) Writing and research: an introduction. Nurse Researcher2 (1)

Hek, G., Judd, M. & Moule, P. (1996) Making sense of research: an Introduction for nurses. London: Cassell

Howarth, K. (1998) Oral history. Stroud, Glos: Sutton Publishing Co.

Krippendorf, K. (1980) Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

Leininger, M.M. (1985) Qualitative research methods in nursing. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton

Leininger, M.M. (1987) Importance and uses of ethno-methods: ethnography and ethnonursing research. Recent Advances in Nursing

Lindlof, T.R. (1995) Qualitative communication research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

LinstoneHA. & Turoff, M. (Eds) (1975) The Delphi method: techniques and applications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Mackenzie, J., Husband, C. & Gerrish, K. (1995) Researching in collaboration: a guide to successful partnerships. Nurse Researcher3 (1)

Meleis, A.I. (1989) International research: a need or luxury?Nursing Outlook37 (3)

Millward, L.J. (2000) Focus groups. In Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (Eds) Research methods in Psychology (

2nd edition

). London: Sage
Nieswiadomy, R.M. (2002) Foundations of nursing research (

4th edition

). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Omery, A., Kasper, C.E. & Page, G.G. (Eds) (1995) In search of nursing science. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452225753

Phillips, D.C. (1987) Philosophy, science and social inquiry: contemporary methodological controversies in social science and related applied fields of research. Oxford: Pergamon

Phillips, L.R.F. (1986) A clinician's guide to the critique and utilization of nursing research. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts

Polit, D.F. & Hungler, B.P. (1991) Nursing research: principles and methods (

4th edition

). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott
Polit, D.F. & Hungler, B.P. (1995) Nursing research: principles and methods (

5th edition

). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott
Polit, D.F. & HunglerB.P. (1999) Nursing research: principles and methods (

6th edition

). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott

Rafferty, A.M. (1997/98) Writing, researching and reflexivity in nursing history. Nurse Researcher5 (2)

Reason, P. & Rowan, J. (Eds) (1981) Human inquiry: a sourcebook of new paradigm research. Chichester: John Wiley

Treece, E.W. & Treece, J.W. Jr (1986) Elements of research in nursing (

4th edition

). St Louis, MO: Mosby
[Page 337]

van Maanen, H. (1998) Two decades WENR: did history write nursing research – or did nursing research write history? In: Knowledge development: clinicians and researchers in partnership. Helsinki: The Finnish Federation of Nurses ISSN 0251–4753 Proceedings of the Workgroup of European Nurse Researchers (9th Biennial Conference Helsinki, Finland) Volume 1

van Teijlingen, E.R. & Hundley, V.The importance of pilot studies. Social Research Update Issue 35 Guildford: Department of Sociology, University of Surrey http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU35.html (Accessed 13/11/03)

Wakefield, J.C. (1995) When an irresistible epistemology meets an immovable ontology. Social Work Research19 (1)

Waltz, C.F., Strickland, O.L. & Lenz, E.R. (1984) Measurement in nursing research. Philadelphia, PA: F.C. Davis

Wilson, S.L. (2000) Single-case experimental designs. In Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (Eds) Research methods in psychology (

2nd edition

). London: Sage

Woods, N.F. & Catanzaro, M. (1988) Nursing research: theory and practice. St Louis, MO: Mosby

Yin, R.K. (1984) Case study research: design and methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

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