Psychologys Roots Big Ideas And Critical Thinking Tools

Description

This best-selling and brief introductory psychology textbook speaks to all students regardless of their background or level of preparedness. No assumptions are made in the vocabulary, examples, or presentation. Students of all kinds are comfortable with Myers' manageable chapters, which include careful connections to associated visuals, comparative tables, and research-based pedagogy.
This is a high quality and affordable resource for students of all levels as they begin their study of Psychology. Written by a trusted author team, the book offers quality of writing and resources that instructors and students can rely on. The text has been heavily updated to reflect psychological science and students' everyday lives today.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 624 pages
  • 155 x 235 x 20.32mm | 1,156.66g
  • 21 Oct 2016
  • Worth Publishers Inc.,U.S.
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 4th ed. 2017
  • 1319013732
  • 9781319013738
  • 1,294,676

Presentation on theme: "Psychology Roots Big ideas and Critical Thinking Tools"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology Roots Big ideas and Critical Thinking Tools
Siegerman Chapter One

2 PsychologyWith hopes of satisfying curiosity, many people listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to learn about others and themselves.Dr. Crane (radio-shrink)Psychic (Ball gazing)Siegerman Chapter One

3 Psychology’s Roots Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
“The soul is not separable from the body, and the same holds good of particular parts of the soul.” Aristotle, De Anima, 350 B.C.Aristotle, a naturalist and philosopher, theorized about psychology’s concepts. He suggested that the soul and body are not separate and that knowledge grows from experience.Siegerman Chapter One

4 Dec 1879 Psychology is bornWilhelm Wundt creates a machine that measures the speed people can tap a telegraph keyThis is psychology’s first experimentPsychology has some very early pioneersWundt was both a philosopher and physiologist.Charles Darwin was an English NaturalistIvan Pavlov was a Russian PhysiologistSigmund Freud was a personality TheoristJean Piaget was a Swiss BiologistWilliam James was an American PhilosopherSiegerman Chapter One

5 Psychology Early Pioneers
May Caulkins worked with William James was denied her Ph.D. because she was a women. She would later go on to be the president of APA.Margaret Flog Wasburn – 1st Women to receive a P.h.D in Psychology.Siegerman Chapter One

6 Psychology developed at any leveles by many people
The definition of Psychology has changed over the years.1st the science of mental life1920’s John B. Watson and later B.F. Skinner stated that Psychology must be “ The Scientific study of observable behavior”Behaviorists were one of two major forces in psychology well in the 1960’sHumanistic rejected the Definition of Psychology, this was lead by Carl Rodgers and Abraham Maslow, they also found that Freudian and Behaviorism was too limiting.Siegerman Chapter One

7 Psychological Science is Born
Freud ( )Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior.Siegerman Chapter One

8 Psychological Science Develops
Humanistic PsychologyMaslow ( )Rogers ( )Maslow and Rogers emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love and acceptance.Siegerman Chapter One

9 Rodgers and MaslowDrew attention to ways that a Positive Environment can enhance our growth and to our needs for love and acceptance.Defining Humanism- emphasized the Growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth.The rebellion of the 1960’s is called the COGNITIVE REVOLUTION which led the field back to the Mental Processes that humans use.Siegerman Chapter One

10 TODAYWe use science to find out how our mind perceives, processes and remembers information.Cognitive Neuroscience has enriched our understanding of brain activityThe Current definition of Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Behavior is anything a human or nonhuman animal does. Any action we can observe and record.Siegerman Chapter One

11 Thoughts Beliefs Feelings Today continued
Mental processes are internal states we infer from behavior:ThoughtsBeliefsFeelingsSiegerman Chapter One

12 Psychology’s Subfields: Research
PsychologistWhat she doesBiologicalExplore the links between brain and mind.DevelopmentalStudy changing abilities from womb to tomb.CognitiveStudy how we perceive, think, and solve problems.PersonalityInvestigate our persistent traits.SocialExplore how we view and affect one another.Siegerman Chapter One

13 Psychology’s Current Perspectives
FocusSample QuestionsNeuroscienceHow the body and brain enables emotions?How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?EvolutionaryHow the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes?How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?Behavior geneticsHow much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences?To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?Although debates arise among the psychologists working from differing perspectives, each point of view addresses important questions.Siegerman Chapter One

14 Psychology’s Current Perspectives
FocusSample QuestionsPsychodynamicHow behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts?How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?BehavioralHow we learn observable responses?How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?Siegerman Chapter One

15 Four Big Ideas in Psychology
Critical Thinking is Smart ThinkingBehavior is a Biopsychosocial Event3. We Operate with a Two-Track Mind (Dual Processing)4. Psychology Explores Human Strengths as Well as ChallengesPreview Question 3: What four big ideas run through this book?Siegerman Chapter One

16 Big Idea #1 Critical Thinking
Is smart thinkingThinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusionsIt examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weights evidence, and assesses conclusions.Siegerman Chapter One

17 Big Idea #2 Biopsychosocial Approach
An integrated approach that incorporates different but complementary views from biological, psychological , and social-cultural perspectives.Nature versus NurtureSiegerman Chapter One

18 Big Idea #3 Dual Processing
The Principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks in our brains.Siegerman Chapter One

19 Big Idea #4 Explaining human Strength
Martin Seligman- Positive Psychology- the Study of Positive Emotions, positive characters traits, and enabling institutions.Siegerman Chapter One

20 Is psychology intuition? Hunches are good!
Why do Psychology?Is psychology intuition?Hunches are good!Critical Thinking means checking assumptions, weighing evidence, inviting criticism and testing conclusions.Siegerman Chapter One

21 Two common flaws in Intuitive thinking
1 Hindsight bias- tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have fore seen it.OverconfidenceA point to remember : Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to over estimate our intuition.Siegerman Chapter One

22 The Scientific Attitude
3 Basic attitudes toward the scientific AttitudeCuriositySkepticismHumilitySiegerman Chapter One

23 The Scientific MethodIn science a Theory explains behaviors or events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed .Hypothesis- a testable predictionResearch and observationThe case studyThe SurveyWording EffectsRandom SamplingNaturalistic ObservationSiegerman Chapter One

24 Research ProcessSiegerman Chapter One

25 (positive or negative)
CorrelationWhen one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)Correlationcoefficientr =+0.37Preview Question 8: Why do correlations permit prediction but not explanation, and what is an illusory correlation?Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.Indicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Siegerman Chapter One

26 Correlation and Causation
Correlation does not mean causation!orSiegerman Chapter One

27 Positive CorrelationBetween 0 and indicates a direct relationshipIncrease or decrease togetheri.e. height correlates positively with weight in growing childrenSiegerman Chapter One

28 An inverse relationship 0 between - 1.00
Negative CorrelationAn inverse relationship 0 betweenAs one increases the other decreases.Siegerman Chapter One

29 CorrelationsHelp us predictCorrelations indicates the possibilities of a cause and effect relationship, but it does not prove causation.Siegerman Chapter One

30 Disconfirming evidence
Illusory CorrelationThe perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. Parents conceive children after adoption.Confirming evidenceDisconfirming evidenceDo notadoptAdoptDo not conceiveConceiveMichael Newman Jr./ Photo EditSiegerman Chapter One

31 A fact to rememberWhen we notice random coincidences we may forget that they are randomSiegerman Chapter One

32 Exploring Cause and Effect
ExperimentationExploring Cause and EffectLike other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects.Preview Question 9: How do experiments clarify or reveal cause-effect relationships?Siegerman Chapter One

33 Exploring Cause & Effect
Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control.Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships.Siegerman Chapter One

34 Double-blind Procedure
Evaluating TherapiesDouble-blind ProcedureIn evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenter’s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment.Siegerman Chapter One

35 Evaluating Therapies Random Assignment
Assigning participants to experimental (breast- fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups.Siegerman Chapter One

36 Independent VariableAn independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study.For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable.Siegerman Chapter One

37 Dependent VariableA dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process.For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable.Siegerman Chapter One

38 A summary of steps during experimentation.
Siegerman Chapter One

39 Below is a comparison of different research methods.
Siegerman Chapter One

40 Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology
Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior.Preview Question 10: How does research benefit from laboratory experiments?Siegerman Chapter One

41 Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?
FAQQ2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same. Biology determines our sex, and culture further bends the genders. However, in many ways woman and man are similarly human.Ami Vitale/ Getty ImagesSiegerman Chapter One

42 FAQQ3. Why do psychologists study animals, and is it ethical to experiment on animals?Ans: Studying animals gives us the understanding of many behaviors that may have common biology across animals and humans. From animal studies, we have gained insights to devastating and fatal diseases. All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals.Preview Question 11: What ethical guidelines safeguard human and animal research participants?Siegerman Chapter OneD. Shapiro, © Wildlife Conservation Society

43 Q4. Is it ethical to experiment on people?
FAQQ4. Is it ethical to experiment on people?Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm beyond normal levels encountered in daily life may be carried out.Siegerman Chapter One

44 Q5. Is psychology free of value judgments?
FAQQ5. Is psychology free of value judgments?Ans: No. Psychology emerges from people who subscribe to a set of values and judgments.Preview Question 12: How are researchers influenced by their own values, and what is psychology’s ultimate purpose?Siegerman Chapter One© Roger Shepard

45 Q6. Is psychology potentially dangerous?
FAQQ6. Is psychology potentially dangerous?Ans: It can be, but is not when practiced responsibly. The purpose of psychology is to help humanity with problems such as war, hunger, prejudice, crime, family dysfunction, etc.Siegerman Chapter One

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